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麻疹概要说明

发表单位:Admin 发表时间:2010/4/27 10:47:00

 

关键信息

  虽然目前已经有安全、经济、有效的疫苗可用,但麻疹仍然是导致儿童死亡的最常见原因之一。

  2008年,全球有164 000人因麻疹死亡 – 几乎每天死亡450例。

  2008年,因为接种麻疹疫苗使全球麻疹死亡人数与2000年相比下降了78%。

  2008年,世界上大约83%的儿童在其一周岁以内通过常规卫生服务接种了一剂次的麻疹疫苗 – 2000年这一数字为72%。 

症状和体征 

    麻疹早期的症状有高热、流涕、咳嗽、眼结膜充血、流泪。几天后出疹,并持续5-6天后逐渐消退。在高度营养不良和缺乏足够卫生保健的人群中,等至少10%的麻疹病人会死亡。 

谁处于危险之中? 

    未接种疫苗的儿童是患麻疹及其并发症(包括死亡)的高危人群。任何没有免疫力的人(未接种疫苗或者既往未患过麻疹的人群)都能被感染。麻疹在许多发展中国家仍然非常常见,特别是非洲和亚洲的部分地区。每年有超过两千万的人感染麻疹。 

传播 

    麻疹是高度传染性的病毒,通过咳嗽、喷嚏、与病人密切接触或直接接触感染鼻咽分泌物而传播。麻疹病毒在空气中或污染物的表面2小时仍具有活性和传染性。感染麻疹的病人在出疹开始的前后4天均可传播麻疹。 

预防 

    在麻疹高发病率和死亡率的国家,为儿童常规接种麻疹疫苗、结合人群强化免疫活动,是减少全球麻疹死亡的关键公共卫生策略。推荐接种两剂次麻疹疫苗,以确保免疫力。麻疹疫苗是安全、有效的疫苗。
 

Measles

Key facts

§ Measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available.

§ In 2008, there were 164 000 measles deaths globally – nearly 450 deaths every day

§ Measles vaccination resulted in a 78% drop in measles deaths between 2000 and 2008 worldwide.

§ In 2008, about 83% of the world's children received one dose of measles vaccine by their first birthday through routine health services – up from 72% in 2000.

Signs and symptoms

Early signs of measles are high fever, runny nose, cough, red and watery eyes. After several days, a rash erupts and lasts for five to six days, and then fades.  Up to 10% of individuals with measles can die in populations with high levels of malnutrition and a lack of adequate health care

Who is at risk?

Unvaccinated young children are at highest risk of measles and its complications, including death. Any non-immune person (who has not been vaccinated or previously recovered from the disease) can become infected.  Measles is still common in many developing countries – particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. More than 20 million people are affected by measles each year.

Transmission

The highly contagious virus is spread by coughing and sneezing, close personal contact or direct contact with infected nasal or throat secretions.  The virus remains active and contagious in the air or on infected surfaces for up to two hours. It can be transmitted by an infected person from four days prior to the onset of the rash to four days after the rash erupts.

Prevention

Routine measles vaccination for children, combined with mass immunization campaigns in countries with high case and death rates, are key public health strategies to reduce global measles deaths. Two doses of the vaccine are recommended to ensure immunity.  The measles vaccine is safe and effective.

(来源于中华人民共和国卫生部网站)

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